|Deriving Einstein's Mass - Energy Equation E = mc2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In a brilliant paper titled "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy-Content?" published in September 1905 in the German physics journal Annalen der Physik, 17, 1905 ("Ist die Tragheit eines Korpers von seinem Energiegehalt abha¤ngig?") Einstein was able to show that the mass of an object is a measure of its energy content. In this Ï - Physics Initiative in Education module Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation E = mc2 is derived and some of its implications are described...
Keywords: Einstein; Mass-Energy; E = mc2; Momentum of Light; Nichols - Hull; Einstein Box Thought Experiment; Sun and Fusion; Pion Decay and Relativistic Energy, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 11, Snell's Law Experiment - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 11 experiment on refraction and Snell's Law. This document includes several ray tracings which can be used by students to do a take-home lab.
Keywords: Physics 11; Snell's Law Experiment; Refraction, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Restless Atom and The Expanding Universe - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A talk given in 2011 that begins with Euclid's Optiks, and continues on to Leonardo and ray tracing, and Johannes Kepler's thin lens equation, to Newton the solar spectrum and his Optiks,light and photons, Richard Feynman and Quantumelectrodynamics, Canadian physicist and Nobel Physics Prize winner Arthur Schawlow and the Laser, Canadian Astronomer Andrew McKellar, The Big Bang, the Cosmic Background Radiation and Gamma Ray Bursts...
Keywords: Euclid's Optiks; Leonardo da Vinci; ray tracing; Kepler's thin lens equation; Newton and spectrum; Feynman QED; Schawlow laser; Andrew McKellar; Big Bang; Cosmic Background Radiation; Gamma Ray Bursts, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 12, Basic Ideas regarding Magnets - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This is a talk given to physics 12 about the basic ideas regarding permanent and non-permanent magnets. The talk also looks at the orbitals of ferromagnetic materials and rare earth materials.
Keywords: Physics 12; Basic Ideas regarding Magnets; permanent and non-permanent magnets; ferromagnetic materials; rare earth materials, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Lorentz Invariant Measure and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A novel approach to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is presented in this paper in a fashion that directly links Special Relativity and Quantum Theory from first principles. The traditional approach to non-relativistic quantum mechanics is primarily didactic. The basic axioms of the theory are introduced, along with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and simple systems like the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator are elucidated...
Keywords: Lorentz Invariant Measure; Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle; Special Relativity; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|The U-2 and the Avro Arrow - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In September 1956 Canadian RCAF fighter pilots flying CF-86 Sabre jets with NATO in Europe inadvertently down an American CIA U-2 over Germany. The pilot Howard Carey was killed. The Canadian Incident, as it has become known, is inextricably tied to the decision to cancel the Avro Arrow CF-105 project in February 1959. The reader is welcome to read the Canadian Incident script as well posted at archive.org...
Keywords: U-2; Avro Arrow; CF-86 Sabre jets; RCAF; CIA., Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 12, Coulomb's Law - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 12 talk titled Coulomb's Law.
Keywords: Physics 12; Coulomb's Law, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 12, Electrostatics - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 12 talk titled Electrostatics.
Keywords: Physics 12; Electrostatics, Pythagoras Publishing
|The basic physics of fission and fusion weapons - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A 1986 paper on the basic physics of fission and fusion weapons. For the time it was pretty advanced. At the time, the young author was able to dicsuss the subject with Dr. George Volkoff at UBC and received guidance by Dr. Carson Mark formerly of Los Alamos. All material presented in this paper represents previously declassified information or educated guesses on the author's part. The more comprehensive Los Alamos Primer is now widely available...
Keywords: basic physics; fission weapons; fusion weapons, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Myth of Language and the Kind and Gentle Woman - Patrick Bruskiewich|
There is no greater myth that perpetuates the feminist mystique than the myth that woman are by their very nature kind, thoughtful and altruistic. In reality, they are after all human just like the men. Many feminists strive to perpetuate biased stereotypes and questionable assumptions both about what it is to be female, and about maleness, male anger and male aggression. A look at the nature of Total War and the Nuremberg Tribunal Findings, about who voted Hitler into power and why...
Keywords: Myth; Kind and Gentle Woman; gender politics; Von Neumann Zero Sum Theory; Nash's Theory of Competitive Equilibrium; Democracy; Parliament; the Rule of Law; The International Court; the United Nations; NATO; male construct, Pythagoras Publishing
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|Physics 11, Speed of Sound Experiment - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 11 speed of sound experiment involving temperature dependence is the purpose of this experiment. The students take two measurements one with air above cold water and one with air above warm water, and then graphs and analyzes the data. A scatter plot of class results can be used in the analysis. This lab teaches several key physics lab concepts.
Keywords: Physics 11; Speed of Sound Experiment; temperature dependence, Pythagoras Publishing
|A Novel Look at the One Dimensional Dirac Delta Schrodinger Equation - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this paper both integral transform techniques and an algebraic formulation of the second order differential equation are used to derive the solution for the one dimensional Dirac delta Schrodinger equation. These are novel approaches which are not found in any standard textbook. Both the Transform and reformulation techniques provide new insight into the one dimensional Dirac delta Schrodinger equation...
Keywords: One Dimensional Dirac Delta Schrodinger Equation; Transform technique; Algebraic Reformulation; attractive Dirac delta function, Pythagoras Publishing
|Leonardo, Galileo and the Pendulum - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This article looks at the link between the work that Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo both did on the motion of a pendulum. The history relating to Leonardo da Pisa is mentioned as well. Galileo's Times-Squared Law and his pin and pendulum experiment is discussed. Refer to the paper "Galileo and the Inclined Plane" for a description as to how Galileo discovered his times-squared law. It is past time, excuse the pun, to the update the history of the discovery of isochronism of the pendulum...
Keywords: Leonardo da Vinci; Galileo Galilei; Galileo's times-squared Law; isochronism of the pendulum; pendulum; period of a pendulum, Pythagoras Publishing
|Thermodynamics, Thermal Radiation and the Beginnings of Modern Physics - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The beginnings of Quantum Physics is introduced in such a manner as to present a continuity of effort between "classical" and "quantum" physics. This paper was written in 1981 and looks at the specific problem of the energy spectrum of a black body source in thermal equilibrium, the 1900 discoveries by Max Planck, and the transfer of energy at an atomic scale. Max Planck never believed that his 1900 paper was all that revolutionary...
Keywords: Thermodynamics; Thermal Radiation; Black Body Radiation; entropy; Max Planck; Bruskiewich, Pythagoras Publishing
|Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal, January 2009 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This is the January 2009 edition of the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal. This edition includes an interview of Canadian Astronaut and now Member of Parliament Marc Garneau as well as the historically significant article The U-2 and the Avro Arrow. Did you know that Canadian CF-86 Sabre jet pilots inadvertently downed an American U-2 over the skies of Europe in September 1956 ... killing Howard Carey the pilot? My editorial "To Boldly Go" recounts Canadian Space History and recommends the ...
Keywords: CUPJ; Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal; January 2009; Interview Marc Garneau; The U-2 and the Avro Arrow; editorial To Boldly Go; ICEOO - The International Civil Earth Observation Organization; International Year of Astronomy, Pythagoras Publishing
|A Look at Gifted Children in the Sciences, Four Case Studies - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Prodigiousness is shared between boys and girls, but genius is predominately a male attribute. The four case studies look at Albert Einstein, Kurt Godel, Paul Erdos and Srinivasa Ramanujan. Gifted Children have special needs. While gifted children inspire admiration, left to their own devices in a normal classroom, they suffer neglect, ridicule and misunderstanding.
Keywords: Albert Einstein; Kurt Godel; Paul Erdos; Srinivasa Ramanujan; Case Study Gifted Children, Pythagoras Publishing
|Emily Carr, Science and Art Leonardo da Vinci , Science 201 (week 2) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The week two notes titled Science and Art - Leonardo da Vinci, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Science and Art; Leonardo da Vinci, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 101, Black Holes and Gravitational Fields Assignment - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 101 talk about Black Holes and Gravitational Fields. An excerpt from Physics by Tipler is included in this assignment
Keywords: Physics 101; Black Holes and Gravitational Fields Assignment, Pythagoras Publishing
|Introduction to the Theory of Relativity: Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Introduction to the Theory of Relativity by Peter Bergmann Part 1: Chapters 1- 5 Prentice Hall, New York , 1948
Keywords: Bergmann; Introduction to the Theory of Relativity; Frames of Reference; Coordinate Transformation; Classical Mechanics; Light; Lorentz Transformation; Vector Calculus; Tensor Calculus
|Personal Recollections about P.A.M. Dirac, by Dr. Maurice Pryce - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Some personal recollections about the life and achievements of Paul Dirac by Maurice Pryce, one of Dirac's finest graduate students. You will enjoy the comments by Kapitza teasing Dirac "positive electrons ... positive electrons, put that into your theory!" at a Cambridge symposium in late 1932/early 1933. Of course Dirac would do so and win a Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory of the Relativistic Positron...
Keywords: Paul Dirac; Maurice Pryce; Kapitza; positive electrons; positrons; Quantum Mechanics, Nobel Prize in Physics, Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 1, Properties of Nuclei University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 1, Properties of Nuclei, packing fraction, binding energy, semi-empirical atomic mass formula, shell, spin, two element radioactive decay chain
|The Period of a Simple Pendulum, an elementary derivation without calculus - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this article the period of a simple pendulum is derived using pre-calculus kinematics. This heurtistic approach is a good introduction to for non-calculus students to the kinematics of a simple pendulum. Mention is made of the early experiments of Leonardo da Vinci and of Galileo Galilei. Lagrange and Einstein.
Keywords: Period of a Simple Pendulum; Galileo; non-calculus; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|Copernicus Work Book - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A work book to introduce On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres by Copernicus. The work book includes excerpts of Nicholas Copernicus' 1543 book, a biography, contributions By Sir Jean Jeans and Max Planck about Copernicus as well as a description of the Apparent Motion and Orbits of the Planets. A digital book prepared by Pythagoras Publishing of Vancouver, BC, Canada
Keywords: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Nicholas Copernicus; Sir Jean Jeans; Max Planck; Pythagoras Publishing
|Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal, Spring 2010 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This is the spring 2010 edition of the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal. I was Editor in Chief of the CUPJ until then. The youngster who came after me were not able to keep the little journal that could in operation. It has been defunk since April 2010. As the most recently published EiC for this journal I feel the obligation to archive the journal for general use.
Keywords: Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal; Spring 2010; Editorial Counting the years back five centuries; thanks to Queen Elizabeth; CAP; Student Affairs; Alpha Experiment; Cyclotron Production Tc-99m; SPECT; Kepler, CUPJ, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 12, Two Simple Derivations of the Wave Equation for a String - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 12 talk that derives the wave equation for a string in two different ways.
Keywords: Physics 12; Two Simple Derivations; Wave Equation for a String, Pythagoras Publishing
|Albert Einstein, Karl Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschild Metric - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A close look at the life and work of Karl Schwarzschild and in particular the Schwarzschild Metric and his two papers from 1916. It is evident that scientists like Riemann and Schwarzschild were looking at gravity as a curving of space long before Einstein and his famous 1916 paper on the Theory of General Relativity. Einstein was definitely not the first physicist to suggest that space-time was curved...
Keywords: Karl Schwarzschild; Albert Einstein; Schwarzschild Metric; George Volkoff; Oppenheimer; Riemann; equation of state, Oppenheimer-Volkoff Equation of State
|Solutions in Complex Analysis: Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Solutions to some problems taken from Complex Variables and Applications, R.V. Churchill, 2nd Edition, p.171 More to come! the author does complex mathematics to relax !
Keywords: Complex Analysis; solutions; residue theory, Pythagoras Publishing
|Emily Carr, Leonardo da Vinci Science Notes, Science 201 (week 2) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The week two notes titled Leonardo da Vinci Science Notes, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Leonardo da Vinci Science Notes, Pythagoras Publishing
|Introduction to the Theory of Relativity: Part 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Introduction to the Theory of Relativity by Peter Bergmann Part 2: Chapter 6 - 9 Prentice-Hall, New York, 1948
Keywords: Bergmann; Introduction to the Theory of Relativity; Relativistic Mechanics of Mass Points; Relativistic Electrodynamics; Mechanics of Continuous Matter; Application of the Special Theory of Relativity
|Euler's Treat - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Leonard Euler (1707-1783) was the leading mathematician of his age. One of his more endearing contributions to mathematics was his equation equating of the natural exponent of a complex function to the cosine and sine function, known as Euler's Treat. This little paper was written with Mr. Andrew Jarvis, who is now at RMC in Kingston.
Keywords: Euler's Treat; exponential; complex number; cosine and sine; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Time Reversal Operator and the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this paper, a pedagogical introduction to the Time Reversal Operator Î for the one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is presented. Time does not appear as a Hermitian Operator in Schrodinger's equation such as the position or the momentum operator does, time is merely a parameter. It is shown that the Time Reversal Operator Î is equal to K, the complex conjugate operator for the QHO.
Keywords: Time Reversal Operator; Quantum Harmonic Oscillator; Quantum Mechanics; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 12, The Electrochemistry of Three Simple Batteries - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 12 talk titled the Simple Electrochemistry of Three Simple Batteries.
Keywords: Physics 12; The Electrochemistry of Three Simple Batteries, Pythagoras Publishing
|Prelude to Quantum Mechanics - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A look at waves and mathematics through the ages starting with Pythagoras idea that everything can be described using numbers, to Leonardo and Galileo launching modern science, to the modern ideas about the wave equation and waves at a boundary on a string. A simple derivation of the wave equation as well as the boundary conditions on a string is provided. Presentation about Waves for the TRIUMF Saturday Morning Lecture Series on October 25th, 2008...
Keywords: Waves; Pythagoras; Galileo; Leonardo; Fibonnaci; wave equation; boundary condition; TRIUMF, Pythagoras Publishing
|Solutions in Complex Analysis: Part 3 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Some additional solutions to Complex Analysis Problems,from Churchill version two, as well as one general solution to a common geometry problem. Having this general result makes an entire class of integrals straightforward to evaluate. Note the symmetry between integrals with cos or sin in the denominator. In part 4 I shall solve for the sum in question 2. More solutions to come â¦. having so much fun!
Keywords: Complex Analysis; solutions; residue theory, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Chemistry of Iron and Steel. - Patrick Bruskiewich|
An introduction to the Chemistry of Iron and Steel, appropriate for either chemistry 11 or chemistry 12.
Keywords: Chemistry of Iron; Chemistry of Steel. Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 2: Interaction of Radiation with matter University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 2, Interaction of Radiation with matter, Bohr Formula, scattering due to a coulomb field, multiple scattering, Compton Scattering, Klein-Nishina Formula, radiation by fast electron, pair production, absorption of photons
|Station Point Grey and Very Special Intelligence: Part 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this article, part 2 of the series, the role that Station Point Grey played in the war against the blockade running German and Japanese submarines is presented with an emphasis on the transfer of special cargo such as men and strategic materials, as well as drawings and parts for advanced radar, aircraft, rocket and electronics, is presented. The Asaka Maru Affair from 1941 is presented, The planning and lead up to the attack on Pearl Harbour by the Imperial Japanese Navy is described, with p...
Keywords: Station Point Grey; Special Intelligence; Tokyo Berlin messages; UBC; Arlington Hall; Bletchley Park; NSA; decrypts; blockade running submarines; Asaka Maru; Winston Churchill; R. V. Jones; Scientific Intelligence; radar; aircraft; U-864; I-52; TRICYCLE; Pearl Harbour; Taranto Raid, Pythagoras Publishing
|On the Interaction of Elementary Particles by Yukawa - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Yukawa's 1934 paper which hypothesized the existence of the pion, the quanta holding the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus.
Keywords: Yukawa; Pions
|Station Point Grey and Very Special Intelligence: Part 3 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The third part of as four part history of Station Point Grey and Special Intelligence, this part looks at the final months of the War in the Pacific and in particular why atom bombs were dropped on the strategic military targets of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This part also looks at the Asian Holocaust where upwards of thirty million people were murdered by the Empire of Japan between 1937 and 1945, OPERATION DOWNFALL the planned invasions of Japan, the attacks on the West Coast of Canada by submari...
Keywords: Station Point Grey; Special Intelligence; the Asian Holocaust; Fire Balloons; submarine attacks; West Coast; Fire Balloons; Unit 731; Ishii; biological warfare; the Stockholm Understanding; the Okamoto Edit; Unconditional Surrender; Emperor Hirohito; war crimes; Tokyo Tribunal, Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 6 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Muclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 6 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 6, Nuclear Forces, mesons, saturation of nuclear forces, Exchange Forces, deuterons, neutron-proton scattering, proton-proton scattering, spin-spin interaction, neutron-neutron forces
|George Volkoff, UBC and the TRIUMF Project (the Lost Wheeler Letter and the Oppenheimer Hearings) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This third article about George Volkoff describes his contributions to the University of British Columbia (UBC) and TRIUMF, Canada's National Accelerator Laboratory on the south campus of UBC. Included in this articles are stories, derived from primary sources, about Einstein, Leopold Infeld, Frederick Kaempffer, and Professor Opechowski (Pritchard should read Pickard in this article). Of special note are the comments by I.I...
Keywords: Volkoff; TRIUMF; I.I. Rabi; Edward Teller; hydrogen bomb; the lost Wheeler letter; the Oppenheimer Hearings; John Wheeler; CUPJ; cupj
|The Canadian Incident, the Downing of a U-2 in 1956 by the RCAF (Film Script) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In September 1956 four RCAF pilots flying Canadair CF-86 with Orenda motors intercepted a high flying, mysterious and unidentified aircraft entering NATO airspace from the East. The four pilots on Zulu alert would inadvertently down a U-2 spy plane returning from a mission to photograph preparations in the Eastern Med for the 1956 Invasion of the Suez. The pilot of the U-2, Howard Carey, who was a colleague and a friend of Gary Powers, would die in the crash...
Keywords: U-2; crash; Howard Carey; CF-86 Sabre jets, RCAF; CIA; John McElroy, Suez Crisis, Pythagoras Publishing
|The HP Way, Know Your Institution First Hand - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A January 2006 article in the Graduate Magazine at UBC. Knowledge is universal, but living knowledge does not reside in books, but within the hearts and mind of men. Knowledge is inanimate, people are animate. How important Management by Objectives MBO and management by walking around MBWA impact an organization. The leadership styles of Lord Nelson, Ed Deming, as well as David Packard and Bill Hewlett are discussed...
Keywords: UBC; Management by Objectives; Management by Walking Around; Lord Nelson; Ed Demings; David Packard; Bill Hewlett; Five Objectives for Improvement
|A Simple Derivation of the Equations of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The implications of the two simple postulates of Special Relativity proposed by Albert Einstein are presented in a succinct form in this paper. Two additional heuristic postulates are explained. The simple algebraic derivation of the equations of Special Relativity was shared by the author to Dr. F. A. Kaempffer and Dr. George Volkoff during the course of a pleasant conversation in 1984.
Keywords: Einstein; Special Relativity; Simple Derivations; Lorentz Transformation; heuristic postulates
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 8 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 8 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 8, nuclear reactions, compound nucleus, resonant state, nuclear gas model, nuclear evaporation, fission, nuclear orbit model, radiative capture, photonuclear reaction, photodisintegration of deuterium
|An Introduction to the Use of Generalized Coordinates in Mechanics and Physics:Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
An Introduction to the Use of Generalized Coordinates in Mechanics and Physics By William Elwood Byerly, Harvard Chapter 1- 2 Ginn and Co. Boston, 1944
Keywords: Generalized Coordinates; Mechanics; Lagrange Equation; Atwood Machine; Gyroscope; Hamiltonian; Modified Lagrangian
|Introduction to Dimensional Analysis: Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Physical units are also known as dimensions in physics. Since the quantities represented by the two sides of an equation must have the same dimensions, it is often possible to arrive at the form of an expression connecting physical quantities by the consideration only of the dimensions of the quantities involved, without a detailed theory.
Keywords: Introduction to Dimensional Analysis, Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 9 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 9 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 9, neutron physics, elastic scattering, diffusion theory, neutron distribution, scattering length, theory of chain reactions, Elementary theory of reacting piles
|Physics 12, Electric Potential - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Physics 12 notes titled the Electric Potential.
Keywords: Physics 12; Electric Potential, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics of Medical Devices - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A presentation on the Physics of Medical Devices for British Columbia Physics Teachers given at TRIUMF in Vancouver in October 2010
Keywords: Medical Devices; Physics; detectors; transistors; TRIUMF, Pythagoras Publishing